# Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics

## Course Description

• ### Course Name

Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics

• ### Area of Study

Atmospheric Science, Environmental Science, Mathematics

• ### Language Level

Taught In English

• ### Prerequisites

Pre-requisites: MT11C Introduction to Meteorology and MT11D Weather and Climate Fundamentals

• ### Course Level Recommendations

Upper

ISA offers course level recommendations in an effort to facilitate the determination of course levels by credential evaluators.We advice each institution to have their own credentials evaluator make the final decision regrading course levels.

### Hours & Credits

• ECTS Credits

10
• Recommended U.S. Semester Credits
6
• Recommended U.S. Quarter Units
8
• ### Overview

Summary module description:
This module aims to introduce the physical processes affecting fluid motion on various scales in the atmosphere and ocean, building up to the equations used in studying atmospheric and oceanic motions, and to solve related fluid flow problems. The concepts will be illustrated by reference to atmospheric and oceanic phenomena and through laboratory demonstrations.

Aims:
This module aims to introduce the physical processes affecting fluid motion on various scales in the atmosphere and ocean, building up to the equations used in studying atmospheric and oceanic motions, and to solve related fluid flow problems. The concepts will be illustrated by reference to atmospheric and oceanic phenomena and through laboratory demonstrations.

Assessable learning outcomes:
By the end of this module, the student should be able to: Describe the physical processes affecting a fluid, including the basic effects of rotation and stratification Solve basic dynamical problems for a fluid Estimate relevant non-dimensional parameters Describe and make quantitative use of the equations of motion for the atmosphere and ocean Describe and interpret physically basic atmospheric and oceanic flows, and solve quantitative problems relating to these flows.

Students will enhance their problem solving skills.

Outline content:
The nature of fluids, pressure, pressure gradient force, streamlines and Bernoulli?s theorem, circulation and vorticity, vortex tubes, irrotational flows, grad, div and curl, divergence theorem and Stokes? theorem, Eulerian and Lagrangian rates of change, viscosity, Reynolds number, inertial and rotating frames of reference, Coriolis and centrifugal forces, inertial oscillations, Rossby number, Taylor-Proudman theorem, buoyancy and stratification, buoyancy oscillations, Richardson number, thermal wind, Burger number, Rossby deformation radius, rotating annulus, Blasius boundary layer, Ekman layer. Navier-Stokes equations, scaling analysis, primitive equations, vorticity equation and mechanisms for changing vorticity, potential vorticity, barotropic vorticity equation, barotropic flow over orography, beta effect, Sverdrup balance and wind-driven gyres, Stommel-Arons model of the abyssal ocean circulation, surface waves and sound waves, phase and group velocity, wave dispersion, wave breaking, linearization of the equations of motion, dispersion relations, reduced-gravity model, internal gravity waves, Rossby waves, Kelvin waves, introduction turbulence, chaos and eddy fluxes.

Brief description of teaching and learning methods:
One 3 hour session per week. This will typically involve a 1 hour lecture followed by a short laboratory demonstration (to small groups) and a problem solving class. Basic concepts introduced during the lectures will be further developed during the problem solving class.

MT24A-Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics

Module Provider: Meteorology
Number of credits: 20 [10 ECTS credits]
Level:5
Terms in which taught: Autumn / Spring term module
Pre-requisites: MT11C Introduction to Meteorology and MT11D Weather and Climate Fundamentals
Non-modular pre-requisites:
Co-requisites:
Modules excluded:
Module version for: 2014/5
Module Convenor: Dr Miguel Teixeira

Summary module description:
This module aims to introduce the physical processes affecting fluid motion on various scales in the atmosphere and ocean, building up to the equations used in studying atmospheric and oceanic motions, and to solve related fluid flow problems. The concepts will be illustrated by reference to atmospheric and oceanic phenomena and through laboratory demonstrations.

Aims:
This module aims to introduce the physical processes affecting fluid motion on various scales in the atmosphere and ocean, building up to the equations used in studying atmospheric and oceanic motions, and to solve related fluid flow problems. The concepts will be illustrated by reference to atmospheric and oceanic phenomena and through laboratory demonstrations.

Assessable learning outcomes:
By the end of this module, the student should be able to: Describe the physical processes affecting a fluid, including the basic effects of rotation and stratification Solve basic dynamical problems for a fluid Estimate relevant non-dimensional parameters Describe and make quantitative use of the equations of motion for the atmosphere and ocean Describe and interpret physically basic atmospheric and oceanic flows, and solve quantitative problems relating to these flows.

Students will enhance their problem solving skills.

Outline content:
The nature of fluids, pressure, pressure gradient force, streamlines and Bernoulli?s theorem, circulation and vorticity, vortex tubes, irrotational flows, grad, div and curl, divergence theorem and Stokes? theorem, Eulerian and Lagrangian rates of change, viscosity, Reynolds number, inertial and rotating frames of reference, Coriolis and centrifugal forces, inertial oscillations, Rossby number, Taylor-Proudman theorem, buoyancy and stratification, buoyancy oscillations, Richardson number, thermal wind, Burger number, Rossby deformation radius, rotating annulus, Blasius boundary layer, Ekman layer. Navier-Stokes equations, scaling analysis, primitive equations, vorticity equation and mechanisms for changing vorticity, potential vorticity, barotropic vorticity equation, barotropic flow over orography, beta effect, Sverdrup balance and wind-driven gyres, Stommel-Arons model of the abyssal ocean circulation, surface waves and sound waves, phase and group velocity, wave dispersion, wave breaking, linearization of the equations of motion, dispersion relations, reduced-gravity model, internal gravity waves, Rossby waves, Kelvin waves, introduction turbulence, chaos and eddy fluxes.

Brief description of teaching and learning methods:
One 3 hour session per week. This will typically involve a 1 hour lecture followed by a short laboratory demonstration (to small groups) and a problem solving class. Basic concepts introduced during the lectures will be further developed during the problem solving class.
Contact hours:
Autumn Spring Summer
Lectures 9 9
Tutorials 12 12
Practicals classes and workshops 8 8
Guided independent study 71 71

Total hours by term 100.00 100.00

Total hours for module 200.00

Summative Assessment Methods:

Written exam 50%
Set exercise 30%
Class test administered by School 20%

Formative assessment methods:

Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convener will apply the following penalties for work submitted late, in accordance with the University policy.
where the piece of work is submitted up to one calendar week after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for the piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/qualitysupport/penaltiesforlatesubmission.pdf
You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

Length of examination:
2 hours

Requirements for a pass:
40% overall

### Course Disclaimer

Courses and course hours of instruction are subject to change.

Some courses may require additional fees.

Credits earned vary according to the policies of the students' home institutions. According to ISA policy and possible visa requirements, students must maintain full-time enrollment status, as determined by their home institutions, for the duration of the program.

ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) credits are converted to semester credits/quarter units differently among U.S. universities. Students should confirm the conversion scale used at their home university when determining credit transfer.

Please reference fall and spring course lists as not all courses are taught during both semesters.

Please note that some courses with locals have recommended prerequisite courses. It is the student's responsibility to consult any recommended prerequisites prior to enrolling in their course.

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