Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
Valparaíso and Viña del Mar, Chile
Area of Study
Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering
Taught In English
Recommended U.S. Semester Credits3
Recommended U.S. Quarter Units4
Hours & Credits
This course has as objective to provide to the student the knowledge and fundamental concepts of Classic Thermodynamic, in order to establish a direct contact with the most common thermodynamic processes in the industry. At the same time, it is intended to focus on sustainable development, sensitizing students to the efficient use of energy in their professional performance. As a result of this course, students will have the tools and skills to develop and analyze in a critically way the thermodynamic processes.
It is evident that it is necessary to establish this course with a solid conceptual base since in the current teaching of engineering there is a growing interest in new knowledge that better explain the fundamental physical processes. Given the narrow time horizon and the extension of new technologies used in industrial processes, the subject matter of this course will be delivered in a very pedagogical and simple way, associated directly with the experiments that will be carried out during the course.
All phenomena involve changes in matter, and transformations of some form of energy into other forms. The judgments we can make about the ecological viability of any economic system (its sustainability) will ultimately refer to the exchange of matter and energy of that system with its environment. Hence, knowledge about matter-energy and its transformations has a big relevance for the life of human beings and the functioning of their societies.
Thermodynamics is care of the study of these transformations of matter-energy, in particular, and from its beginnings, the relations between thermal energy and work, constitutes one of the greatest achievements of the nineteenth century. Its essence is contained in two principles, known as the two laws of thermodynamics. Both can be summarize in a single sentence: The total content of matter-energy in an isolated system is constant and the total entropy increases constantly.
The Faculty of Science and Engineering of our House of Studies is convinced that the course of thermodynamics, phenomena of energy transfer, mechanics, electromagnetism, and waves are one of the keys to engineering sciences and good Performance in the professional career of our engineers. Also, the content of this course is of interest for the students who will make their memories or will be dedicated to energy, mining, soil physics, meteorology, transport of pollutants, biology, environment, and civil works.
RELEVANCE OF THE COURSE FOR STUDENT TRAINING
In practice all industrial processes require the application of the Principles of Thermodynamics. The knowledge of these principles is base in thermal engineering, for example, to carry out an energy analysis (with determination of the energy yield) of power systems for the generation of electricity (combined cycle with steam and gas turbine), an Oil refinery, a refrigeration cycle, etc.
The knowledge of whether a thermodynamic process can or cannot occur in the reality is essential for the design of new processes, as well as the knowledge of the maximum benefits that can be obtained in the different devices that compose an energy installation, and what are the causes which make it impossible to obtain these maximum benefits. The study of the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids circulating through the devices, water, air, refrigerants, gases and gas mixture, is indispensable to analyze the behavior of thermal systems. Also the study of the procedure to be followed for the energy analysis of systems of refrigeration, air conditioning and in combustion processes is of big interest.
For this reason, it is considered this course totally necessary for a comprehensive training of the current Engineer, since the study of Applied Thermodynamics gives the previous steps for the further development of Thermal Engineering (thermal power systems, refrigeration systems, Air conditioning, in addition to renewable energies); Being even necessary for the study in the fields of the transmission heat and the mechanics of fluids.
On the other hand, knowing the equations that describe the thermodynamic phenomena involved in the processes (known as mathematical models), is critical for: Combining the individual components of the plants or thermodynamic processes; evaluate the relationships between variables, subject the process to extreme conditions, among others. Today this is greatly facilitated by the availability of information technology, very sensitive instrumentation, high-speed computers and supercomputers.
The general objectives of the subject of Thermodynamics are that the student:
- Recognize the importance of the concept of energy, its storage, transformation and transfer; as well as their relationships and changes in the properties of matter on the basis in concepts and fundamental principles of classical thermodynamics applied in the solution of problems in engineering through observation, analysis, logical reasoning and decision making.
- It will apply the principles of thermodynamics for the calculation of the performance of real systems in closed and open systems.
- It will calculate the thermodynamic properties of the different fluids used in thermal engineering, with the aid of tables, diagrams and computer programs.
- It will describe the different types of open systems, their function and application in thermodynamic cycles.
- It will analyze the operation of the refrigeration and heat pump systems, identifying the components, as well as the cycles used to obtain high performance.
- It will implement small energy prototypes working as a team and writing a technical report that will also be presented orally.
According to the topics of the course, the specific objectives are for the student to develop the following skills in the following areas:
- To know the fundamental concepts used for the description and classification of thermodynamic systems and processes.
- Analyze the behavior of a substance in the gas phase from the equation of state for ideal gases.
- Analyze the basic relationships between the properties of substances that are affected by energy interactions.
- Identify the phase in which a pure substance is found by interpreting phase diagrams.
- Analyze the energy changes in the different types of thermodynamic processes of the devices that operate at steady flow for the optimization of their use in industrial processes based on the equation of continuity in a control volume.
- Apply the principles of thermodynamics in the calculation of heat and work requirements in power cycles (steam and gas), cooling cycles.
Students of the Industrial Civil Engineering career at the end of their program should achieve the following skills:
(a) Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
(b) Ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data
(c) Ability to design a system, component or process that accomplish the needs required, considering realistic constraints, such as: economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturing and sustainability
(d) Ability to work in multidisciplinary teams
(e) Ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems
(f) Understanding professional ethical responsibility
(g) Ability to communicate effectively
(h) Extensive training needed to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental and social context.
(i) Recognition of the need and ability to engage in a permanent learning
(j) Knowledge of contemporary issues
(k) Competence to use modern engineering techniques, skills and tools necessary for engineering practice
The course of Thermodynamics is responsible for measuring the performance of students in skills a, d, e and k.
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
- Energy forms of a thermodynamic system Kinetic energy
- Mechanical energy Potential energy Internal energy
- Principle of energy conservation
Expansion / Compression Work
- Joule's experiment. Mechanical equivalent of heat.
- First Law of Thermodynamics.
- First law of thermodynamics for systems that fulfill a work cycle.
- Enthalpy. Relationship of internal energy with other properties of the system
- Specific heat. Definition in terms of partial and ordinary derivatives
ENERGY ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME
- Principle of conservation of mass for a control volume
- Principle of conservation of energy for a control volume
- Energy equations for a steady-state control volume.
- Energy equations for control volume in transient (non-stationary) flow.
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
- Spontaneous, non-spontaneous and equilibrium processes
- Reversible and irreversible processes
- Statement of the second law
- Thermodynamic cycles:
- Carnot cycle
- Application of the second principle to the thermodynamic cycles:
- Rankine's Cycle,
- Gas cycle; Otto and Diesel
- Brayton Cycle.
- Refrigeration Cycle and heat pumps
- The Clausius Inequality
- Definition of entropy
- Variation of entropy in internally reversible processes
- Entropy balance for closed systems
- Entropy balance for control volumes
- Isentropic processes
- Isentropic performance of turbines, nozzles, compressors and pumps.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION
- Stoichiometry of reactions
- Actual combustion processes
- Enthalpy of formation energy analysis of reactive mixtures in steady state
- Adiabatic combustion temperature
75% OF ASSISTANCE TO CLASSES IS REQUIRED FOR THE SEMI EMPIRICAL NATURE OF THE TYPE OF LEARNING THAT THE STUDENT SHALL BE FACING.
ASSISTANCE TO LABORATORY ACTIVITIES IS MANDATORY
ANY INASISTANCE TO A TEST OR A LABORATORY ACTIVITY SHOULD BE JUSTIFIED PROPERLY WITH CERTIFICATE TO A SECRETARY OF STUDIES, WHO SHALL INFORM THE TEACHER OF CATHEDRAL.
On dates to be scheduled, the demonstration sessions of the following phenomena and thermodynamic processes will be inserted into classes.
DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRATIC ACTIVITIES IN THE CLASSES OF INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS.
The development of this project aims to critically discuss the problem of thermodynamic phenomena through a prototype at scale; Meet new proposals and respond to challenges in the field of thermodynamics. It is an open invitation to all students of the course and should be presented by the working groups already defined.
Develop an experimental prototype at scale, which allows demonstrating some thermodynamic phenomena.
- Know and analyze different aspects of thermodynamics.
- To know and analyze the innovations and technological developments that involves the use of concepts of thermodynamic phenomena.
- Strengthen group work among students.
- Support the course fellows to the understanding and understanding of different areas of interest in the subject of thermodynamics.
Areas of interest.
Study groups are invited to show a prototype mini-pilot scale. Some examples are shown below:
- Cooling systems.
- Combustion engines.
- Steam generation systems.
The subject is developed in three areas: The Classes, the Assistant and the project.
- Lectures with strong use of blackboard.
- Use of Power Point.
- Analysis of publications in journals of scientific dissemination in topics related to the areas of interest of students.
- Emphasis on understanding fundamental concepts.
- Emphasis on the technological and social challenges that the country will address in the next 10 to 20 years.
The course requires students to read the topics indicated in this agenda in advance. The teachers of thermodynamics orient the study of the main topics and the exercise proposed by the course. Complementary materials are available to the student in the corresponding web page.
Presentation grade to NPE exam
- The course includes three lecture tests with grades P1, P2, and P3 each with equal weight in the calculation of the final grade.
- A scale project will be carried out, and activities or workshops will be developed in classrooms.
- In addition, it is contemplated the development of three controls to develop in the classes of assistance.
Each grade average is calculated rounding to a decimal digit.
The conditions that must be met to be exempted from the examination are as follows: the NP note must be between 10% of the best marks of the course and be greater than or equal to 5,5 (NP ≥ 5.5).
Final Grade NF
Students who obtain an average of PC = ((P1 + P2 + P3)) /3 less than 3.0 will fail the course with final grade NF = PC and will not be entitled to take the exam.
The student who obtains a test grade of less than 3.0 fails the course.
The course will be approved by all students who obtain a final grade of NF greater than or equal to 4.0.
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