Migration, Globalization and Social Change
San José, Costa Rica
Area of Study
Anthropology, International Studies, Political Science
Taught In English
Recommended U.S. Semester Credits3
Recommended U.S. Quarter Units4
Hours & Credits
OverviewINTRODUCTIONHuman migration is truly a global issue that involves every country in the world and connectswith a wide range of diverse issues that carry from specific government programs tointernational politics, banking practices, cultural values, democracy and demographics.Migration is not a new occurrence, it has been happening throughout history, but has takenon a few added dimensions over the last few years, to the point where it presently hasbecome an important component of the body of knowledge needed to comprehend presentday societies. The study of migration is complex, and must go beyond the simplistic viewof it being a problem of refugees, illegal immigrants and specific border crossings. Becauseof this complexity, the study of migrations has emerged over the last decade as one of thetruly controversial issues affecting the world today.While recognizing that migration has lately become an important factor to be understood inmost societies around the world, it is important also to keep a balanced perspective. Thereare strong emotional feelings that surround the issue of human migrations that can manageto overshadow important empirical facts, the main one being that the movements of peoplearound the world are not nearly as large as we are generally led to believe. Studies by TheWorld Bank indicate that of the 6.3 billion people that constitute the present day worldpopulation, only 3% respond to the categorization as migrants, either legal or illegal. Thevast majority of the population (97%), live in their country of origin. Even so, the percentageof people presently living outside of their home nations is the largest ever at any point inhistory, and all tendencies seem to point to a growing trend with no end in sight. It is alsoimportant to note that most countries are also experiencing significant patterns of internalmigrations, as people seek accommodation is situations that better fits their needs. In largercountries, and those that host various cultures within its borders, internal migrations canpresent issues that need careful examination.There are various reasons behind migration movements. The most common explanationsoffered is the seeking of improved economic conditions, the escape of civil strife andpersecution, and the seeking of less restrictive religious and political environments. Diggingdeeper into the reasons, most of them can be characterized as ?push? and ?pull? factors,which refer to situations that tend to expel citizens from their home base and those that atthe other end tend to be attractive to them. This combination is important in explaining thereasons for migration. Also, the recent trends towards globalization in the last three decadeshave led to flows of information about other societies that broaden the perspective of allpeoples, since globalization includes strong elements of technological growth, newopportunities, information, economic growth and interesting developments in the fields ofhuman rights, equity and a host of freedoms being introduced into everyday living.The course introduces participants to theories and practices of international humanmigrations as a phenomena that has been present throughout history, but that has taken onspecial emphasis in today?s world, with human ramifications, and strong effects beingproduced on societies on both ends of the problem: nations from which peoples are leavingand those that are targeted by the migrants. The phenomena is reviewed on several of itsmost prominent manifestations: forced migrations, voluntary migrations or internaldisplacements of groupings of people, and the motivational underpinnings that provoke themto embark on such drastic actions as the uprooting of home and families in pursuit ofperceived better life opportunities. Migration is perceived by peoples in despair as analternative to social, political and/or economic conditions that weigh heavily on them, evenwhen factoring in risks of security and adaptation to cultures unknown. Within these, will beanalyzed issues of return migrations, effects of remittances, formation of diasporacommunities and the myriad of problems brought about by cultural adaptations andassimilation.The course will cover the theoretical foundations for analysis and understanding of emergingissues brought about by intense migration movements across the globe, and the consequenteffects that these have on the host societies, the incoming groups and societies left behindby migratory groups. Participants will take part in the analysis of new identities and culturalmanifestations that emerge from these occurrences, and the some of the main problems ofmisunderstandings and adaptations that are necessary in order to reach accommodationsthat allow for the valuable and peaceful coexistence that eventually leads to an enrichmentof the life experience of all groups of peoples involved.OBJECTIVESAt the end of the course, participants will be able to:- Understand trends in international migrations and the social, political and/oreconomic issues that lead to this.- Analyze government laws and policies in the light of current migration patterns andissues that rise unexpectedly.- Anticipate changes and adaptations within cultural practices in society as a result ofmigratory flows.- Understand the role of migrations and human mobility in social change.- Understand the effects of globalization on human mobility and the role of broaderknowledge of world cultures on the aspirations and desires of peoples.COURSE CONTENT- Study of theories, approaches and key concept on Migrationso Theoretically informed account of challenges posed by internationalmigrations and resulting policy responses to these that lead to migrationmanagement by government and practice by society at the global, regionaland bilateral level.- Qualitative research methods in migration studieso Introduces participants to a range of possible research strategies and allowsthem to prepare for more advanced academic and professional work on thesubject.- Managing migrations is central to shaping the global futureo Realization that in an increasingly globalized world, migration and culturaldiversity is a fact of life, and that adjustments in cultural patterns and policyresponses are going to be needed.- International and domestic quarrels that displace peopleso Identification of some of the principal issues that lead to disputes withinsocieties and in many cases to deny the full integration of groupings within apolitical and cultural society, and therefore force upon specific groupings theidea of migration as an alternative to life fulfillment. Push and pull forces.- Human and economic needs that encourage mobilization of peopleso Human and economic disparities lead to limitations in life opportunities, sothat limited human development foster unfulfilled dreams. Identification of theprinciples of human development and their impact on migration alternatives.- Globalization tendencies that encourage migrationso Full participation in a globalized society requires a relationship of peoples onequal footing at least on the basics of human development. Issues of humanand political rights, the rule of law and respect of traditions and customs ofothers are essential to inclusion in societies.- Political, religious and other disputes that prevent full inclusion withinsocieties and the granting of full legal rightso Review of general rules of coexistence in harmony, with respect.- Issues of return migrationso Issues faced upon return to the original society. Adaptation to changes.- Effects of remittanceso A substantial amount of migrants need to meet economic obligations leftbehind, and therefore have contributed to making out remittances to thenative society a huge international business, that in many cases has spilledover into international conflicts over these issues.- Formation of diaspora communitieso Issues of language and religious practices, dress codes and social traditionsrise to the forefront when diaspora communities emerge, and in manyinstances tend to clash with practices in the host society. The rights ofimmigrants are issues that need to be addressed sooner instead of later.- Problems of cultural adaptation and assimilationo Emphasis on the problems faced by second and third generation immigrantswhile living in dual societies, and striving to balance these.METHODOLOGYThe course will be based primarily on lectures by the Instructor, and written and oralpresentations by participants on the different topics in the Course Content. Participants willbe assigned specific topics to develop, and will present these in written and oral form to therest of the class, and lead a discussion on the issues. Since this is a developing field, thereare many issues that are not resolved in terms of an academic approach to them, andtherefore they are still characterized by bringing out passions, suppositions, andspeculations that have not yet been developed into full fledged facts upon which policiescan be based. Therefore, discussions are expected to be common in the course, andindividual thought will be respected fully.The number of papers to be developed by each student will depend on the numberparticipants in the course.It is expected that the prime source for consultation will be the bibliography distributed inclass, supplemented by internet sources added by each participant. The literature consultedwill be an important part of the grading of each paper.Grades will be the result of the following:Mid term exam 30%Written and oral presentations 35%FinaL exam 35%Rules and regulations of Universidad Veritas, as explained to all participants duringorientation, in regards to attendance and classroom behavior will apply.BIBLIOGRAPHYAli, Sayed, & Doug Hartmann, eds. Migration, Incorporation and Change in anInterconnected World. New York: Routledge. 2015De Guchteneire, Paul. Democracy and Human Rights in Multicultural Societies. 2007.Dustmann, Christian. Economic Change, Social Challenge. Oxford, U.K.: University of sfordPress. 2015.King, Russel, ed. . Atlas of Human Migration. New York: Firefly Books, Ltd. 2007.Steiner, Niklaus. International Migration and Citizenship Today. New York: Routledge. 2009.INSTRUCTORMilton Clarke, PhD in Management Sciences (Areas of Specialization: StrategicManagement, Political Economy of Development, and International Trade). FormerlyManagement Advisor for United Nations Development Programme and formerly SeniorConsultant to Swedish International Services, working in developing nations. Presentlyworks as Management Consultant to international, public and private organizations.
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