Human Anatomy and Physiology
Area of Study
Biology, Human Biology, Psychobiology
Taught In English
Course Level Recommendations
ISA offers course level recommendations in an effort to facilitate the determination of course levels by credential evaluators.We advice each institution to have their own credentials evaluator make the final decision regrading course levels.
Recommended U.S. Semester Credits4
Recommended U.S. Quarter Units6
Hours & Credits
OverviewDescriptionIn this subject students gain excellent basic knowledge in physiology, putting them in good stead for medical-oriented subjects in subsequent years and potential entrance into the medical and dentistry fields. Students learn the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of the healthy human body. Lectures are complemented by a supportive practical/tutorial program. The subject content includes: homeostasis; the anatomical organisation of the body and anatomical terms; and the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, nervous, respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary systems. Development of practical skills is a major part of the subject.Subject objectivesUpon successful completion of this subject students should be able to:1. develop oral communication skills so as to communicate effectively in ways appropriate to the discipline, audience and purpose.2. describe the structure and function of different organs found in the body systems.3. explain simply and concisely basic physiological principles - homeostasis; feedback mechanisms; bone growth; human movement; effect of hormones on body function; electrical signalling via the nervous system controlling reflexes and motor skills; movement of blood gases, nutrients and waste products throughout the body; inspiration and expiration via the respiratory organs; digestion of food, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes by the gastrointestinal system; the role of the urinary system in homeostasis and excretion.4. present data relating to a current and relevant physiological problem or condition, graphically and in a scientifically acceptable form, and to interpret the data in the context of your knowledge and understanding of the material covered in the subject.This subject also contributes specifically to the development of following course intended learning outcomes:An understanding of the nature, practice and application of the chosen science discipline. (1.0)Encompasses problem solving, critical thinking and analysis attributes and an understanding of the scientific method knowledge acquisition. (2.0)An understanding of the different forms of communication - writing, reading, speaking, listening -, including visual and graphical, within science and beyond and the ability to apply these appropriately and effectively for different audiences. (6.0)Contribution to the development of graduate attributesHuman Anatomy and Physiology is a Stage 2 core subject in the Medical Science, Biomedical Science, Forensic Biology and Biotechnology degree courses. It presents fundamental knowledge and skills required for most Stage 3 to 6 subjects.The organisation and delivery of Human Anatomy and Physiology will assist students to develop the following graduate attributes:1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate applicationAn understanding of the nature, practice & application of the chosen science discipline, students will develop this attribute via lectures and practicals. Students will be at times encouraged to interact with each other and the lecturer so that basic concepts in physiology are well understood. It is endeavoured that students will acquire an appreciation of the central role of science in society. UTS Online tests and formal examinations are all designed to provide the student with an opportunity to consolidate their learning and let them assess their developing knowledge in the subject and to determine their mastery of the content of this subject.2. An Enquiry-oriented approachAn understanding of the scientific method of knowledge acquisition. Encompasses problem solving, critical thinking and analysis attributes, and the ability to discover new understandings. Students will be required to attend practical classes which will enhance their knowledge gained in lectures and allow students to encompass problem solving and to gain an understanding of the observational and experimental character of science and development of basic skills in laboratory techniques, and experimental design. These tasks will allow students to develop critical and independent thinking and gain an appreciation of the clinical applications of physiology. Students will be required to do an oral presentation assessmnet task during which students will be expected to do some research for adequate completion of the assignment. This assessment task will encourage students to develop critical and independent thinking by preparing for the oral presentation.6. Communication skillsStudents will be guided and taught how to deliver oral presentations. Based on employer surveys oral communication skills is the most highly ranked graduate attribute desired by employers from new graduates. Students will be required to choose a current news item or recent media release related to human physiology and deliver a 3 minute presentation to the class. Students will receive feedback after the talk. Students will begin to develop oral presentation skills by demonstrating the ability to apply these learnt tools so as to communicate appropriately and effectively to different audiences.Teaching and learning strategiesFace-to-face classes will incorporate a range of teaching and learning strategies including lectures, short presentations, videos, simulations and student laboratory group work. These will be complemented by independent student reading, laboratory quizzes and participation in online quizzes.Students are required to routinely check the lecture, laboratory session timetables and UTSOnline for the times and locations of lectures, labs and dates for assessment tasks.Lectures: Students undertaking this subject generally enjoy the lectures, which contain many examples of clinical scenarios to enhance the learning process. Students should be able to relate normal physiological parameters to changes in these parameters in the disease state. Examining briefly a variety of case studies allows students understanding of the normal physiology to be reinforced and cemented. For example within the lecture on bones the case study might be "osteoporosis" which is always in the media and possibly students relatives are afflicted with this disease. It is authentic learning which students can relate to quite easily. Prior to developing the case study students will be asked three simple questions pertaining to that lecture just to examine their own understanding and recall of information. There will be a lecture on the do's and don'ts on oral presentation skills which will help students in completing the assessmnet task later on in the semester on this exact topic. So the lecture delivery is converted from purely didatic teaching to a more interactive environment by engaging with the students.Practicals: These sessions allow students to engage in practicals which are relevant to the outside world experiences. For example when it is very cold your hands go pale - Why?? Students do practicals that answer these everyday questions by making physiology fun and relevant. One of the practical sessions looks at real human cadavers in the Anatomy laboratory allowing students to visualize and feel body structures. Another practical involves a clinical scenario in which the person ends up in hospital. Using Simman (robotic dummies) in which physiological parameters can be programmed into to mimic the real life scenario. Students engage with Simman like a real life person as it can talk by a voice over from a nurse in the control room as the patient's voice. Students participate in a role play with half the group being the patients friend and the other half the health care workers. This process engages students to learn some basic physiology in a more interactive manner. This process is facilitated by experience tutors. Students will be encouraged to participate in interactive physiological experiments which will enhance knowledge on how to design an experiment and how to collect and interpret scientific data.Workshop: Students wil have the opportunity to work collaboratively to refine their oral presentations. Facilitators will be present to offer assistance as needed.Content1. TISSUESLECTURE: Characteristics and common locations of epithelium, connective tissue, nervous tissue and muscle tissue (including illustrations of common examples).PRACTICAL: Observing the different tissue types under the microscope.2. ENDOCRINE SYSTEMLECTURES: An overview of major endocrine organs and hormones, including target cell specificity and negative feedback control of hormone release.PRACTICAL: Blood glucose levels will be measured on samples provided to mimic diabetic and non-diabetic blood glucose responses to a glucose tolerance test.3. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMLECTURES: The structure and function of the heart and blood vessels and a description of the electrical and mechanical events in the cardiac cycle.PRACTICALS: Sheep heart dissection and location major blood vessels. Student participation- measuring pulse rate and blood pressure, observing changes in the ECG before and after exercise. Perpheral vasoconstriction experiments e.g. changes in blood flow through the fingers when exposed to the cold.4. NERVOUS SYSTEMLECTURES: Organisation structure and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The basic neurophysiology describing membrane potentials, action potentials and the action of neurotransmitters on receptors. Sensory and motor function. Selected examples of reflex activity.PRACTICALS: Sheep brain dissection, histology of neural trissue, assessing the function of cranial nerves, observe different reflexes by using a variety of stimuli e.g. neurological hammer, penlight.5. INTRO TO A&P AND HOMEOSTASISLECTURE: The language of medicine ? an introduction to terminology in anatomy, histology and physiology to identify and describe the composition, structure and function of body organs and systems. The concept of homeostasis ? the maintenance of a stable state. Control mechanisms to achieve homeostasis i.e. negative and positive feedback.PRACTICAL: Body organisation and Anatomical terms (both in the Anatomy laboratory and Physioogy laboratory).6. SKELETON AND MUSCLESLECTURES: Bone structure, development, ageing and homeostasis. General functions of bone. Classification of bones, according to shape and location in the axial or appendicular skeleton. Joint classification, structure and function, their importance in growth and in mobility in an ageing population. Classification and naming of muscles according to shape and or location.Skeletal muscle structure including gross anatomy of selected muscles and the microscopic anatomy of muscle fibres. Muscle physiology and metabolism including synaptic transmission at the motor end-plate, muscle contraction, tone and fatigue. Isotonic versus isometric contraction, twitch, treppe and tetany.PRACTICAL: Bones, Joints and Muscles (both in the Anatomy laboratory and Physioogy laboratory).7. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMLECTURES: The functional anatomy of the nasal passages, the pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchial tree. Pressure changes in the lungs during ventilation and the four gas laws. The exchange of gases in the alveoli. The transport of oxygen from the lungs to the periphery and the transport of carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Control of respiration.PRACTICAL: Dissection of sheep's pluck, gross/micro anatomy of the respiratory tract. Students can measure their lung function using Spirometry and Vitalograph measurements. Investigate various aspects of breathing e.g. breath-holding, hyperventilation, rebreathing and the relationship between breathing and heart rate. The diving reflex response when the face is exposed to cold water.8. GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEMLECTURES: The structural plan and histology of the digestive tract. The structure and function of the digestive organs including enzyme action, the absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes.9. EXCRETORY SYSTEMLECTURES: Anatomy of the kidney and associated excretory organs. Kidney physiology - mechanisms of urine formation, counter current multiplier and counter current exchanger, release of various hormones by the kidney in reponse to changing blood pressure and acid-base balance.PRACTICAL: Sheep kidney dissection. The use of multistix in urine for identifying various urinary markers. A video will be shown on renal function..There will be one Anatomy practical in which students will observe human cadavers, as well as four interactive physiological practicals (Lab Tutor) incorporated into the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems.This lectures in this subject are repeated due to large class numbers. There may be small changes from week to week so students MUST look at Announcements in Blackboard for updated messages.AssessmentAssessment task 1: Online QuizzesIntent:This assessmnet task contributes to the development of the following graduate attributes:1. Disciplinary knowledge and it's appropriate application.Objective(s):This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):2 and 3This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):1.0Weight: 10%Criteria:You will be assessed on the conceptual understanding and comprehension of basic human physiology. MCQ are assessed for correctness and accuracy of disciplinary knowledge. It may also include calculations; use of equations and the application of acquired knowledge to interpret some complex questions.Assessment task 2: Lab QuizzesIntent:This assessmnet task contributes to the development of the following graduate attributes:1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application.2. An enquiry oriented approach.Objective(s):This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):2, 3 and 4This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):1.0 and 2.0Weight: 20%Criteria:You will be assessed on:? Accuracy of data collection? Thoroughness? Conceptual understanding and comprehension of basic physiology? Synthesis and interpretation of scientific data.Assessment task 3: Oral PresentationIntent:This assessment task contributes to the development of the following graduate attributes:2. An enquiry-oriented approach.6. Communication skills.Objective(s):This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):1This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):2.0 and 6.0Weight: 20%Criteria:Students will be asked to choose any recent media release story in the media related to some aspect of human physiology and deliver an individual 3 minute oral presentation to the class.One lecture will take palce on "how to give an oral presentation". This lecture will detail how to present well to an audience and typical pitfalls experienced by novices. Students will be encouraged to view videos on Youtube produced by the lecturer depicting examples good and bad videos. This will aid students in their presentation. A rubric of criteria that will be assessed will be placed on UTS Online weeks prior to the presentation.A workshop will be held in week 4 for students to refine their individual presentations.This assessment task must be completed to gain a pass in this subject.Assessment task 4: Final ExamIntent:This assessment task contributes to the development of the following graduate attributes:1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate application.Objective(s):This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):2 and 3This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):1.0Weight: 40%Criteria:Accuracy of information provided by you with respect to the content covered by lecturers in lectures and practical classes.Assessment task 5: Simman SimulationIntent:This assessment task contributes to the development of the following graduate attributes:1. Disciplinary knowledge and its appropriate applications.2. An Enquiry-oriented approach.6. Communication skills.Objective(s):This assessment task addresses subject learning objective(s):2, 3 and 4This assessment task contributes to the development of course intended learning outcome(s):1.0, 2.0 and 6.0Weight: 10%Criteria:Accuracy of information provided by you with respect to the content covered by the Simman simulation practical class. This will include quizzes and a reflection based on the sequences of the Simman simulation.Minimum requirementsStudent must obtain at least 40% of the marks available for the final examination in order to pass this subject. If 40% is not reached, an X grade fail may be awarded for the subject, irrespective of an overall mark greater than 50.In addition;Students are expected to attend all lectures and laboratory sessions. The lectures include explanations, illustrations and discussion of material that may not be covered elsewhere.Students are expected to attend and participate in learning activities in all lab sessions, which are an important part of the learning experience in this subject. Students who miss sessions without providing documented evidence of illness or misadventure will not be eligible for special consideration in this subject. (Refer to section on Missed lab sessions regarding attendance requirements).Students are expected to routinely check the lecture and laboratory session timetables for the times and locations of lectures, labs and dates for assessments.Students are expected to routinely use and check their UTS email accounts. Students are expected to regularly check UTS online and participate in the online forums.Students are expected to conduct themselves in an ethical way and not engage in cheating or plagiarism.Students are required to be familiar with and observe the UTS environmental health and safety (EHS) rules as they are detailed in subject document posted on UTS online specifically relating to conduct in lecture rooms and in laboratories.NOTE: Laboratory coats and closed shoes are mandatory in ALL laboratory classes and are requirements for admission to the laboratory session. In addition, students MUST be aware of the UTS procedures for evacuation in an emergency.Attendance at an EHS workshop during orientation week is a requirement for the subject. You will be provided with a copy of the faculty EHS document that you will be required to read and then sign. A copy of the signed agreement will be given to you.Required textsMarieb EN and Hoehn KN. Human Anatomy and Physiology- 9th edition PearsonRecommended textsMartini & Ober.. ? Visual Anatomy & Physiology? - 1st edition, PearsonMartini and Nath. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology. 8th edition PearsonSaladin KS. Anatomy & Physiology. 5th edition, McGraw-HillTortora GJ & Derrickson B. A & P - Principles of anatomy and physiology. 13th edition. WileyReferencesGermann W J and Stanfield C L. Principles of Human Physiology (This is an advanced text).UTS Library reference: 612 GERMRoss MH, Kaye GI and W Pawlina. Histology A Text and Atlas + Image CD UTS Library reference: 611.018 ROSS (ED.4)Kerr J B. Atlas of Functional Histology UTS Library reference: 611.018 KERRMcCance KL and Huether SE. Pathophysiology. The Biological Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. (This is one of the Nursing Texts and covers both the healthy and diseased state. It is a useful text for Assignments). UTS Library reference: 616.07 MCCA (ED.4)Stedman?s Concise Medical Dictionary, 4th edition (This is an excellent REFERENCE text for medical terminology and unfamiliar words)Tortora GJ and Grabowski SR. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology UTS Library reference: 612 TORTVan de Graaf KM and Fox SI. Concepts of Human Anatomy and Physiology UTS Library reference: 612 VAND (ED.4)McKenzie, S.B. Textbook of HaematologyJaneway CA, Travers P, Walport M, Capra JD ImmunobiologySompayrac L, How the Immune System WorksLee, G. & Bishop, P. Microbiology and Infection Control for Health ProfessionalPrescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. and Klein D.A MicrobiologyGuyton and Hall. Medical Physiology. 11th edition ElesvierPatton and Thibodeau. Anatomy & Physiology. 7th edition ElsevierMcKinley MP, O'Loughlin VD and Bidle T. Anatomy & Physiology. 1st edition McGraw-Hill
Courses and course hours of instruction are subject to change.
Credits earned vary according to the policies of the students' home institutions. According to ISA policy and possible visa requirements, students must maintain full-time enrollment status, as determined by their home institutions, for the duration of the program.